CONCEPT OF MALE INFERTILITY IN AYURVEDA
INTRODUCTION: Male without progeny is blamed as tree without fruit. Overall, 1/3 of infertility cases are caused by male reproductive issue, 1/3 by female reproductive issue and 1/3 by both male female reproductive issues or by unknown factors. In about 50% of cases, the cause of male infertility cannot be determined. A complete lack of sperm occurs in about 10% to 15% of men who are infertile. In some cases of infertility a man produces less sperm than normal. Normal sperm count is 20 to 150 million sperm per milliliter (1). The most common cause of this condition is varicocele is present in about 40% of men with infertility. Ayurveda also explained in detail about infertility, its cause’spath physiology, treatment under the head of Vajikarana. In Ayurveda various terms related to infertility are explained like Klaibya, Napunsaka, Shanda which are indicative of impotency and the condition like Shukradosha, Shukradoshjaklaibya, Alparetasa, Kshinaretasa are related terms with infertility.
ABSTRACT: Infertility is defined clinically in women and men who cannot achieve pregnancy after one year of having intercourse without using birth control. Many different conditions and other factors can contribute to fertility problem out of these Oligospermia and Azoospermia are present in many more cases. Oligospermia is the male infertility issue defined as low sperm concentration in the ejaculation. As per World Health Organization (WHO), a low sperm count is less than 20 million sperm/ml. Normal sperm count varies from 20 to 150 million sperm per milliliter. Azoospermia is the condition where there is complete absence of sperm in the semen, with resultant infertility.
a Oligospermia or synonymously Oligozoospermia is a condition in which sperm count is reduced.
So, this is a condition in which sperm count will be less than 20mil/ml. (WHO1992). Now WHO reassessed sperm criteria and establish a lower reference point less than 15 million/ml.
This condition occurs due to etiological factors which hamper Spermatogenesis and also blockage in path, which conveys sperms from testis to outside.(2) Major causes of Oligospermia(3)
1) Congenital: Cryptorchidism or undesended testis incidence about 0.2 of male population.
2) Thermal: Scrotal temperature should be less than 2ºF from core body temperature. Raised scrotal temperature may depress the spermatogenesis because it is sensitive process which alters with alteration in temperature. The temperature of scrotum will be raised in condition like varicocele, Hydrocele and Filariasis. Moreover working near hot zone and wearing of tight undergarments may depress spermatogenesis.
3) Infection: Infection like Syphilis, Non- specific urethrities, Mumps, Orchities after pubertal period may permanently arrest spermatogenesis.
4) Genetic: Klinefelters syndrome and XX male syndrome are two genetic defects which lead to defective spermatogenesis.
5) Endocrine: Hypopituitarism, Hypothyroidism, Adrenal hyperplasia can also cause the disease Oligospermia.
6) Sexual: Too frequent intercourses decrease the spermatogenesis and sperm cell activity.
7) Systemic disease: AIDS lowers the degree of spermatogenesis, renal factor, Cirrhosis of liver, Diabetes Mellitus causes low testosterone level. Vitamin A deficiency also causes reduction in spermatogenesis.
8) Addiction: Alcohol is the most important Leydig cell toxin. Tobacco addicts like smoker, chewers and multiple addicts will have below normal sperm count.
9) Drug: Antibiotics like Ampicilin, Erythromycin and Cephalexin causes Oligospermia.
10) Psychological: Increased stress condition also produces low quality of semen.
(4) Azoospermia is the medical condition of male not having any measurable level of sperm in his semen. It is associated with very low level of fertility or even sterility. In humans Azoospermia affects about 1% of the male population and may be seen in up to 20% of male infertility situation.
Oligoasthenospermia & Shukradushti The male Infertility can be complete or partial termed as sub-fertility. Males were considered infertile with sperm parameters and the most significant of these are reduced no. of Spermatozoa (Oligozoospermia), duced Sperm Motility (Asthenozoospermia Sperm Vitality (Necrozoospermia . Studies conducted on infertility have revealed that about 1 in every 3 cases are due y in current times is an alarming issue that needs to be given highest attention.
4 Vajikarana is the specialized branch of Ayurveda dealing with Male infertility (Shukradushti) and Erectile dysfunction (Klaibya).
Sperm Abnormolities is an acquired quantitative and qualitative abnormality in Sperms caused by faulty dietetic, psychological, traumatic factors and chronic debilitating illness that results the individual develops Eerectile dysfunction & Premature ejaculation, and there is decreased sexual desire.
Decreased Sperm Production (Ksheena Shukra) is included in one of the varieties of ashtavidha shukradushti. When both vata and pitta dosha are vitiated, the quality and quantity of the Shukra alters and resulting into shukradushti specially Ksheena Shukra. Ayurveda give emphasis to the treatment of shukradushti with dhatuvriddhkara, balakara, Shukrajanaka and Shukrapravartaka those in-terms of increasing the sperm count and motility by using Vajeekarana Dravya.